The 2008 Nobel Prize laureates were named in Stockholm and Oslo on October 6-13. During the week, six prizes were awarded.
The prizes and their winners are:
_ Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine to French researchers Francoise Barre-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, in 1983. They shared the award with Germany’s Harald zur Hausen, who was honored for finding human papilloma viruses that cause cervical cancer, the second most common cancer among women.
_ Nobel Prize in physics to Japan’s Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide and American Yoichiro Nambu for theoretical advances that help explain the behavior of the smallest particles of matter.
_ Nobel Prize in chemistry to Osamu Shimomura, a Japanese citizen who works in the United States, and Americans Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien for discovering and developing green fluorescent protein, or GFP, that has helped researchers watch the tiniest details of life within cells and living creatures.
Nobel Prize in literature to France’s Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio for works characterized by “poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy” and focused on the environment, especially the desert.
_ Nobel Peace Prize to Former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari for his efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts.
_ The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences to American Paul Krugman for his analysis of how economies of scale affects trade patterns and where economic activity takes place.
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